Oceanography & Marine Biology


Oceanography is the scientific study of the marine life, the life that lives in them and their physical features, ecology, the depth and extent of the oceanic water, their movements, composition and in meteorology, the interaction between the atmosphere and the oceans. Oceanography is also known as marine science.

Man first started to obtain knowledge of waves and currents in the seas and oceans in the pre-historic times.

Oceanography is the scientific study that studies oceans and also about the impact of pollution on marine life, exploitation of marine resources, global warming defects and the climate change. It is divided into four parts:

1) Biological oceanography or marine biology.
2) Chemical oceanography or marine chemistry.
3) Geological oceanography or marine geology.
4) Physical oceanography or marine physics.

Biological oceanography means the study of the animals, plants of the seas and oceans and their ecological interaction.

Chemical oceanography focuses on the study of the chemistry of the ocean and its chemical interaction with the atmosphere. It is the study of the dissolved elements in ocean water and numerous chemical and biochemical cycles. It includes the origin and evolution of sea water, the origin of the sediments which cover the ocean floors, their relationship between the chemical constituents and also to find out the significant changes in ocean chemistry.

Geological oceanography is the scientific study of the ocean floor and their features, the earth structure beneath the oceans, to find out about their formation and process of ongoing changes in future.

Physical oceanography is concerned with the physical attributes of the ocean water such as temperature and currents. It is study of the structure and movement of water and currents in the oceans. It studies the factors that influence the movement of ocean water such as wind, gravitational force, rotation of earth etc.

In brief, it is a science which combines physical oceanography, marine chemistry, marine geology and marine biology. Oceanography helps in predicting weather and climate, to keep a track on the exploitation of the marine resources and effects of pollution

Anuradha Purandare

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